The resources listed below are useful pages we found elsewhere to supplement the topics we cover in our songs. The links are grouped by song, with each song listed in alphabetical order. Clicking the title of a song takes you to the individual song page, where you can hear audio clips, view lyrics and state standards, and buy the song and any related albums or collections.

• ## (Pump Up the) Volume

Math.com
History of Pi
This page tells the history of Pi, what it is, and a description of how it is used. There is a lot of interesting information and a cool experiment called Buffoon’s Needle that students will enjoy. A great site with lots of additional information on math topics.

Volume Formulas
This page provides illustrations and the formulas to find the volumes of several different shapes. Good explanations of similarities and differences.

Math Open Reference
Volume of a Cube
This site explains how to find the volume of a cube. Requires a plug in for the visual reference, but has a very good written explanation that would be useful.

Volume of a Cylinder
This site explains how to find the volume of a cylinder. Requires a plug in for the visual reference, but has a very good written explanation that would be useful.

Math is Fun
Cuboids
This site is a gem for simple clear explanations of cubes, rectangular prisms and cuboids. Excellent illustrations as well.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach
Volumes and Areas (PDF)
This worksheet has formulas for finding the volume, area and surface area of various shapes. Simple, easy to understand and hard copies can be made and distributed to students easily.

Math Forum.org
Surface area of Sphere
This activity has students compare the area of a sphere with a rectangle by using wrapping paper to illustrate the difference. Good visual. Fairly easy.

Area and Volume
This activity has students making squares and cubes of various sizes to illustrate important differences. A good classroom activity. Not too difficult

Education World
Investigating Volume
In this hands-on lesson, students “discover” the concept of volume. They will learn the concept by using math manipulatives to measure volume. Useful if you have manipulatives already in place that are 1-inch cubes, rectangles, etc.

• ## 44 Presidents

GW: Life and Times
This site has 12 slides of artwork and text describing the life of George Washington and the formation of our government. Excellent material.

ipl.org (Internet Public Library)
Presidents of the United States (POTUS)
The site contains detailed background information for each president, including election results, cabinet members and notable events. Also links to biographies, historical documents, audio and video files, and presidential sites.

Millercenter.org (The University of Virginia)
American President: An Online Reference Resource
The site has detailed profiles for each president, with links to full biographies, cabinet member profiles, speech transcripts, and Miller Center videos and audio files of journalists’ presentations.

USHistory.org
This site gives students a historical overview of the times before Washington DC was the nation’s capital. It provides history of the old White House, photos, maps, news, and also historical context for presidents and their relations with slavery.

Whitehouse.gov
White House for Kids
Historical themes very accessible to young students. It links to the White House website for detailed profiles of each president, and provides a “real life” view of the President and his family, including information about their favorite books and sports, events they attend, and their pets. The Parents & Teachers section contains several classroom activities, including directions for writing letters to the President, trivia about the First Family and presidential quizzes.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Sheppardsoftware.com
Presidents Game
Great game about US Presidents, but only goes up to Bill Clinton. Lots of interesting questions and information. Also other information about presidents including pictures of each of them.

Sporcle.com
Presidents Name Game
This site has great games, and this is one of the best. President’s names must be spelled correctly and the game is timed. Older students will enjoy this is an individual or class activity.

Education-world.com
Students analyze current campaign TV ads and literature, and then learn to look beyond the ad to understand its intended purposes and its real content.

Getting Out the Vote: An Election Day Classroom Experiment
Students learn through a hands-on experiment why voting is important, and about the potential impact of deciding not to vote.

How Well Do You Know Our Presidents?
Students research and create flip-up fact cards about the U.S. presidents.

If I Were the President
Students compose a brief essay telling what they would do to solve problems in the United States if they were elected president.

PBSkids.org
Painting Presidential Portraits
This lesson offers the opportunity for students to look at the duties of the president using the online game, “President for A Day.” The students can express themselves through art and creative writing, as they design new U.S. currency with presidential portraits, facts, and figures.

Teach-nology.com
United States President Biographical Data Form
Students pick a president and write a biography using this worksheet as a guideline.

##### Media

TeacherTube.com
Animaniacs Presidents (song)
Animated cartoon video from the former series, Animaniacs. They sing a song outlining America’s presidential history.

44 Presidents
Presented by RRR, this video shows pictures of all of the 44 presidents with the song “44 Presidents” playing in the background. Also available on YouTube.

BrainPOP.com
Presidential Election (video) (log-in and subscription required)
Tim and Moby teach students about the voting process and presidential elections.

Presidential Power (video)
Tim and Moby tell what it means to be the President of the USA. Students will learn about the three branches of government and which one the president is a part of.

• ## 50 States, 50 Capitals

##### Activities & Games

Sheppard Software
These state and capital review games are divided into beginner, intermediate and expert
levels, meeting the needs of students who have varying levels of knowledge about the 50 states and capitals. Highly interactive and fun.

Beginner and intermediate levels are probably the most helpful and engaging.

I Like 2 Learn
This online game helps students to match states and capitals. Provides the capitals and prompts students to click on the correct corresponding state. A very straightforward
activity that will help students solidify their knowledge of state/capital pairs.

Excellent for 4th grade and above

Fact Monster
This is an interactive US map: click on each state to learn fast facts, state landmarks and
flags and other “Americana.” Each profile also includes the state capital, postal code
information, and features links to other useful, smart sites pertaining to the state. Great
for extra credit projects.

Great for 5th grade and above

KidsGeo.com
A multiple choice game that prompts students to identify the capital of a highlighted state on a map.

Good for younger students

Quiz Hub
Prompts students with state names and their capitals, and asks them to click on the
corresponding state on the interactive map. A good way to learn states, capitals and
the statesʼ locations in the US.

Great for beginners and younger learners
There are many excellent sources for this topic available. Here is a representative group that we have selected as having particularly interesting content.

Quiz Hub
The equivalent of electronic flashcards, students match the state with the capital by
clicking on pairs. Excellent for students who have learned their states and capitals, but
who still need a reinforcing activity.

Good for review

Quiz Hub
The equivalent of electronic flashcards, students match the state with the capital by
clicking on pairs. Excellent for students who have learned their states and capitals, but
who still need a reinforcing activity.

Good for review

Sporcle
See if you can name all 50 states! This timed activity allows students to demonstrate
mastery of the 50 states by naming them all on an interactive map. This timed activity is
particularly good for middle school students.

Best for 5th grade and above.

America’s Library
This online exploration site is a great way to help students learn about the 50 states.
You can “go” to any state on the map for fast facts and state information, but the site

Excellent for all ages

Wikipedia
An incredible resource. Lists the dates of statehood for each state, and includes an
interactive map that shows the progression of inclusion into the US. As each state is
highlighted, a sophisticated timeline shows the date statehood was achieved.

Good introduction for 5th grade and above into Wikipedia resources.

Mapsorama.com
A well-done topographical map of the US. States are not labeled, but will provide solid
understanding of regional landscapes.

Edutopia

This site is a generally excellent resource. This particular lesson can be used as is or

Best for 5th grade and above

• ## Bill of (Your) Rights

bensguide.gpo.gov
The Bill of Rights
Easy to understand definitions for each of the Amendments. Also links to other sites and pages.
Separate pages for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12

archives.gov
Bill of Rights
Extensive history and discourse on the versions of the Bill of Rights, including dissent of George Mason and other attempts to write similar documents. An excellent site for discussion topics and extra credit reports.

Ourdocuments.gov
The Bill of Rights
A great site full of information about the writing of the Bill of Rights and related documents. ‘Tools for Educators’ an excellent site for ideas for classroom activities.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Many of the resources for the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence song pages also have materials for the Bill of Rights.

Ourdocuments.gov
The Bill of Rights (see above under Reading)

Constitutionfacts.com
The Bill of Rights
Lots of facts, games, puzzles and interesting information for grades 6-12. Excellent site for interesting data.

##### Media

Texaslre.org
Bill of Rights Match Game
This game is available on both elementary and secondary levels. Questions relate to school issues and require an understanding of the issue and the Amendment that applies.

ConstitutionCenter.org
Bill of Rights
Excellent explanations of all of the amendments plus an ability to download and print in other languages. Interactive.

• ## Characters, Setting, Plot

Literary Elements
This site has detailed definitions for several literary terms, including character, setting and plot. Easy to navigate. Good materials. Good for all grade levels. Kim’skorner4teachertalk.com

Literary Elements and Devices
This website has detailed definitions for several literary terms including character, setting and plot. It also has links to other resources. Good teacher resource.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Eduref.org
Dear Character
This classroom activity asks students to share character traits of a chosen character, and to then write a letter as that character to another character.

Descriptive Character Analysis
This lesson plan gives several ideas for teaching students about character development, from drawing pictures to acting as the characters.

I Can Write; I’m an Author!
This lesson plan teaches how to write a narrative, with focus on structure and elements such as character, setting and plot.

Inferring Character Traits
This activity includes the whole class. Students analyze characters as a large group.

Story Creation Magic: Character, Setting and Plot
Though this activity was created for students younger than middle school, it works for older students, too, if the example story is changed to be more advanced. This exercise teaches students the importance of properly using character descriptions, settings and plot structures.

Educationworld.com
This classroom activity asks students to identify two elements of a play (character/setting) in the text of a book. Uses “Ira Sleeps Over” as the book.

Character in a Bag
Partners use clues from a bag to cooperatively develop a mystery character and produce a PowerPoint about that character.

Create-A-Plot
This activity asks students to use characters, settings, and plots to write original stories.

Mapping the Mockingbird
After reading To Kill a Mockingbird, students participate in a case study about how the setting of this book affected the plot.

Stir Up a Character Analysis Recipe
This lesson challenges students to discover the right “mix” of ingredients (characteristics) in a real or fictional character. A fun activity. Adaptable to any age group.

Writing a Character Sketch

Developing Story Structure with Paper Bag Skits
Paper bags containing five unique props are distributed to each group; these props provide the impetus for the development of creative skits. Students then use online tools to outline the story elements in their skits.

• ## Circulatory System

American Heart Association
Children’s Health
This site has information about our hearts and health, helping students to understand the real-life relevance of the circulatory system. Good worksheets and information for multiple grade levels. Simple and easy to navigate.

Thinkquest.org
Circulatory System
Good site for younger students. Colorful, easy to understand illustrations and information.

The Franklin Institute
The Human Heart
With excellent pictures and diagrams explaining the heart and the circulatory system, this information-packed site is definitely worth a visit! Good for all.

NOVA Online
Amazing Heart Facts
This website provides students with exciting trivia about the heart.

PBS
Red Gold: The Epic Story of Blood
This is a detailed account of blood and its course throughout the human body. Excellent and thorough.

Indianapolis Public Library
The Circulatory System
This unlikely source has posted a very well-organized site an easy to read illustration and proper labeling of all the major arteries and veins. Lots of additional resource links and good books are listed. Excellent for middle and high school students.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

The Franklin Institute
The Human Heart
This website provides several ideas for classroom activities involving the human heart and its functions. Excellent site for all grades.

NASA Quest
A Circulatory System Relay
This activity involves setting up an actual relay course for students to participate in with the goal of better understanding the circulatory system. A fun activity and one that provides visual and physical understanding of how blood travels through the body. A good activity that would involve the whole class working together.

ProTeacher
Circulatory System
This site features a message board where teachers submit circulatory system lesson plans and activities. Some good ideas that worked!

##### Media

Mayo Clinic.com
The Heart
A short (less than 5 minutes) excellent video with voiceover and text under, give a clear explanation of where blood travels within the system and the role that the heart plays in pumping the blood. Good for all grades.

How Stuff Works.com
Blood and Capillaries
There are several excellent short videos on this site, however, there are also a couple of 30-second non-objectionable-content ads that start a couple of them. Worth it for the material.

• ## Circumference (It Just Makes Sense)

Education World
This website explains how to add and subtract fractions, and provides links to other helpful resources on the topic. The site is extensive and has worksheets and games in addition to excellent information. Excellent resource.

The Math Page
Multiply and Divide Fractions
Using examples, this site explains how to multiply and divide fractions.
Great detail in the explanation will help students who have a difficult time understanding. This is a good exercise for students with problems multiplying or dividing fractions. There are many great lessons on this site!

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach
Worksheet: Fraction Addition – Unlike (Set 1) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Addition – Unlike (Set 2) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Division – Unlike (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Multiplication – Unlike (Set 1) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Multiplication – Unlike (Set 2) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Subtraction – Unlike (Set 1) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Subtraction – Unlike (Set 2) (PDF)
These worksheets allow students to practice subtracting and reducing unlike fractions. Bare bones worksheets, but get the job done. Can be easily downloaded and reprinted.

AtoZTeacherStuff
Fractions in Everyday Life
This activity uses household objects (measuring spoons, cups, etc) and a recipe which they double and multiply out even farther to show students how fractions are relevant in our everyday lives. Recipe with lots of fractions included. Could be fun.

Education World
Equivalent Fraction Bingo
This bingo game gives students practice in understanding the concepts of numerators and denominators. This could be fun! The bingo grid, fractions for the card and flash cards are all included. Easy to put together and use.

Slicing Up Fractions
Students review the concepts of equivalent fractions, adding fractions, and multiplying fractions as they solve problems involving pieces of pizza. Thorough and visually rewarding. Excellent as introduction to fractions or for younger students.

Math Forum
A Tour of Fractions
This collection of fractions lesson plans has a wide array of variety, from activities to reference materials. Lots of resources here on a variety of levels.

SCORE Mathematics
Pumpkin Pie for All!
This is a link to the quintessential pie/fraction lesson. California State standards are listed at the end.

##### Media

Math Playground
The Boston Marathon (video)
This animated video takes students on a step-by-step journey of figuring out a fractions problem about a runner’s speed when running the Boston Marathon. This is a fun site with other math games and puzzles too.

• ## Civil Rights Movement

Watson.org/lisa cozzens
Civil Rights Movement
This site is extensive and covers many events preceding the civil rights movement beginning with the Dred Scott case of 1857 as well as more recent events. Written as a high school and college project, the main contributor to this well-written history is Lisa Cozzens. It is a worthy site for all high school students as Ms. Cozzens is an excellent writer and historian.

Cnn.com
Civil Rights Timelines
This site has time lines of early civil rights efforts from 1783-1952 and civil rights struggles and activities from 1954-1996. There are also related sites and reading listed. The site is easy to navigate, concise, and provides a useful chronological framework for further study.

Martin Luther King Institute (Stanford University)
MLK documents
Houses literally 100s of speeches, documents, photos and other authentic material from the early civil rights efforts until the late 1980s. The broader questions of human rights and global civil and human rights are also discussed with documentation, essays and photos. A great site to explore for individual or class study projects.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Martin Luther King Institute (Stanford University)
MLK documents
As cited earlier, this site is a gold mine for authentic information on MLK and other significant participants in the civil rights movement. It is comprehensive and all materials may be downloaded easily. There are excellent lesson plans with discussion questions and activities. Federal educational standards met by these lesson plans are listed.

Civilrightsmuseum.org
Virtual Tour
Take students on a virtual tour of the museum so that they can learn about related exhibits.

Discoveryeducation.com
The Civil Rights Movement
This comprehensive website features lesson plans, activities, assignments, links to other resources and a glossary of terms to assist in understanding the central themes of the movement.

The End of the Civil Rights Movement?
This link challenges students to think critically about where America is today in the struggle for civil rights.

Racial Inequality: The Remnants of a Troubled Time
This informative link talks about the 14th Amendment and Brown v. Board of Education.

EdHelper.com
Black History Theme Unit
The historical content of this unit begins during exploration and ends in the 1900s. It provides links that are broken down into specific subjects, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. and Sit-Ins. Each link has detailed summaries of the topic as well as links to worksheets and activities.

Educationworld.com
Black History Month
This collection of web resources includes information and activities on everything about the Civil Rights Movement. Activities include writing raps about influential figures and participating in a treasure hunt.

PBS.com
Freedom: A History of US
This PBS feature showcases lesson plans, resources, and learning materials for several themes surrounding American freedom, including the Civil Rights Movement.

##### Media

BrainPOP.com
Civil Rights (video) (log-in and subscription required)
Tim and Moby introduce students to the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. They share what this movement was all about and why it was so important. It includes the famous Brown v. Board of Education trial case, and about what happened when Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat in Montgomery, Alabama. Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and what he did to contribute to the civil rights movement are also discussed.

Malcolm X (video)
Tim and Moby tell students about why Malcolm X was an important American figure, including how his politics differed from those of other civil rights activists of the 50s and 60s. Also discussed is black nationalism and why Malcolm’s political convictions lead him to reject his last name in favor of ‘X.’ Included are Malcolm’s early years, how prison changed his life—and how a trip to Mecca changed it again. Students will also learn about Malcolm’s untimely death.

• ## Countries of Africa

For Older Students
Sporcle.com
The Countries of Africa” is an incredibly helpful game. It contains a map on which all the countries will be automatically located as you type them in the box at the top. All countries must be spelled correctly to appear in the map and the game is timed at 10:00 minutes! Great for spelling, memory, and class participation. (This is also fun for faculty to play!)

For Younger Students
Afroam.org
The Countries of Africa has good information on a number of African countries featured, complete with a map of the country, flag, location, and other interesting facts. The map is disappointingly small, but the facts are relevant. The main problem is that the background makes it difficult to read the information unless you print it to hard copy, which shows only text on a plain white background. The map is also incomplete and outdated: only 16 countries appear in detail on this site, and Zaire is still considered a country.

For All Students
Sheppard Software
Africa Geography Maps is a great website for students who have their own computer or for a classroom where computers or smartboards can involve all the students. You can work with the African continent as a whole or as individual countries. We advise teachers to play with it a bit to find out how it works. There are a lot of things to do on this site! Below is an overview of the most obvious. If you want to assign countries to students, or let someone earn a little extra credit, this is a good website to start with.

Level L is the tutorial/beginning Level. You can click on the map to learn the names of the countries (which are pronounced for you in a voiceover), or you can learn the names by clicking on the countries in the menu to learn their location on the map. An information box pops up as the country is entered and you have time to read all the information. You can move at your own pace in this game. This is a great tool to learn where the countries are located! No one should feel embarrassed to start here.

Level One has a map game that requires some knowledge of the Africa’s geography in order to score well on the game. You can select which region you want to choose your countries from and don’t need to spell them correctly to find the answer. You can see your score as you advance.

Level Two has a map that requires you to drag and drop the geographical outline of a country onto the map of the continent. The distance is short and the map is large enough that it shouldn’t slow anyone down. It will correct you if you get it wrong, and give you a score at the end. It is a lot of fun, particularly for anyone who enjoys jigsaw puzzles! No spelling is required, and the names of countries are no longer pronounced for you.

Wikipedia.org
Wikipedia’s resources on the territories and regions of Africa include pictures of flags, names of the capitols, the currency, official languages, etc. in a chart-like form that is easy to read and print out. You can click on each countries, region, and territory to read more about each one individually.

• ## Declaration of Independence

bensguide.gpo.gov
The Declaration of Independence
Features a comprehensive history of the Declaration of Independence, and links to the writers’ biographies and a full transcript.

Archives.gov
The Declaration of Independence
Features a complete transcript of the Declaration of Independence and links to other resources which describe its formation. Excellent for class discussion as it connects the Declaration of Independence to civil rights struggles throughout history.

NPS.gov
Teaching with Historic Places: Independence Day
Features a variety of lesson plans and information sources that explain events leading up to the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Designed for middle school students.

USHistory.org
The Declaration of Independence
Index of Signors by State
Provides a transcript of the Declaration of Independence, biographies of people who created it, and the history of the document.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

PBS.org
The Declaration of Independence: An Analytical View
This lesson plans requires students to watch clips from the PBS program “Liberty! The American Revolution” read documents, and answer sets of questions using knowledge.

Virted.org
Declaration of Independence Activities
Features twenty activities concerning the Declaration of Independence include writing a letter to King George and watching the movie “1776”.

##### Media

BrainPOP.com
Declaration of Independence (video) (subscription and log-in required)
Tim and Moby introduce students to the Declaration of Independence and find out what actually was declared in reaction to events leading up to 1776.

Cosmeo.com Powered by the Discovery Channel (must have log-in; can do a free trial, otherwise must pay for yearly subscription)
“The Declaration of Independence: A Foundation of Ideas for a New Age”
Video explains basic principles and concepts set forth in the Declaration of Independence, and explores American leaders, their ideas, and the historical events that led them to declare independence from England in 1776

• ## Don’t Be Negative

Math Forum
Ask Dr. Math: Inequalities and Negative Numbers
This site has a Q&A format, providing detailed information about performing operations with negative numbers. Good site for basic information.

Negative Times a Negative
This site uses several examples for explaining how to compute with negative numbers. It also features links to other resources. Detailed and complete.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Education World.com
Positive and Negative Integers: A Card Game
This adaptation of the card game Twenty-Five provides practice adding and subtracting positive and negative integers. A good game but for groups or small classes.

Lesson Tutor
Algebra Lesson 9 – Positives and Negatives on the Number Line
This activity teaches students to think about negative numbers in terms of the number line. It also provides practice in adding/subtracting negative numbers. An easy way to assess students’ understanding of negative numbers.

FunBrain.com
Line Game
This site has games ranging from easy to ‘super brain’ using positive and negative integers in a line game. Good fun and review.

Math is Fun.com
Multiplying Negatives
This site is loaded with games and activities for all kinds of math. Some are easier than others, but all seem to be well written and fun. You may wish to bookmark this site.

• ## Dots and Dashes (Punctuation)

Grammar and Writing
Punctuation Marks
This site gives a thorough look at punctuation, separated into sections for each punctuation mark. Lots of information and extensive examples. Good for all ages.

National Punctuation Day
National Punctuation Day
This clever and fun site celebrates punctuation, and provides resources for better understanding its usage. Particularly good for younger students.

Northern Illinois University English Department
Joys of Punctuation
This site goes over basic punctuation in great detail showing how the meaning of a sentence can change by changing punctuation.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Education World
Be the Editor!
This exercise asks students to edit pre-made writing using sentences relating to famous African-Americans. The mistakes often have to do with punctuation.

Every Punctuation Mark Matters: A Mini-Lesson on Semicolons
By using Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” students get an in-depth look at the semicolon. Note that while this lesson refers to the “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” any text which features rhetorically significant
use of semicolons can be effective for this mini-lesson.

New York Times Learning Network
Pause for Punctuation
In this lesson, students play with several methods to help them identify, use, and correct the improper use of punctuation.

New York Times Learning Network
Punctuate This! (teacher instructions) (PDF)
Punctuate This! (student worksheet) (PDF)
This is an editing activity that focuses on punctuation.

ProTeacher
Capitalization and Punctuation
This teacher chat board has a variety of creative ideas for classroom activities involving proper punctuation. There are many clever and useful activities for young students on this site. A real gem!

• ## Figurative Language

Kidskonnect.com
Figurative Language
This site has a chart of figurative language definitions and links to other resources.

Frostfriends.org
Figurative Language
Using examples from Robert Frost’s poetry, this website provides detailed information about various forms of figurative language.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach.com
Baseball Similes
This worksheet explains the set-up of a simile and then asks students to create their own about baseball.

Hyperboles (PDF)
This worksheet teaches students about using hyperboles to make writing more amusing.

Personification
This worksheet gives students practice in using personification.

Similes
This worksheet allows students to practice using similes.

What’s a Euphemism? (PDF)
This worksheet teaches students how to exchange simple phrases for clever euphemisms.

Eduref.org
Analysis of Literary Devices Used By Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X
By analyzing the speeches of MLK, Jr. and Malcolm X, students get immersed in figurative language and creative thinking.

Figurative Language
This lesson plan goes extremely in-depth about the use and interpretation of figurative language, and requires the use of internet resources provided within this page. This lesson plan also comes with worksheets.

Educationworld.com
Fear Factor Fun
Students are asked to write descriptions to “Fear Factor” stunts they create in the hopes of grossing out other students. It teaches them to use figurative language in an effective way.

Poetry Shopping Spree
Students “shop” for poems that provide examples of literary elements/devices such as metaphors, similes, personification, imagery, or onomatopoeia.

Snowy Similes
This activity asks students to create picture booklets using as many similes as possible.

Harris Middle School
Alliteration Lesson Plan and Resources
This website provides several ideas for classroom activities about alliteration, as well as links to other resources. Lots of good examples to use. Two levels.

Descriptive Words
This activity encourages students to describe phrases in creative ways that they would not normally think of. Fun page! Versatile and useful.

Imagery
Students are asked to identify imagery within a poem, and then to write their own poems using creative imagery.

Personification Lesson Plans and Resources
This website recommends numerous activities for teaching personification. Different activities for upper elementary and older students.

A Simile and Metaphor Sample Lesson Plan
This lesson plan teaches students to identify and create similes and metaphors. Adaptable for many grades and classes. Poetry is used

Website: Mr. Donn’s Language Arts
Figurative Language Lesson Plans & Activities
This site features lesson plans, activities, quizzes and links to other resources about figurative language. Uses power point and other devices. Be sure to scroll down the whole page.

• ## Fractions and Decimals

The Math Page
Fractions and Decimals
This excellent site is filled with many useful lessons in arithmetic, algebra, geometry and advanced math. Well thought out and laid out, it is a terrific resource for classroom or individual study.

Math Forum.com
Decimals and fractions
Good information in a concise format.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Math is Fun.com
Decimals, Fractions and Percents
This site is a lot of fun with clear explanations, good visuals and a thorough treatment of the conversion process. Great introduction to conversions and excellent for younger students.

Purple Math.com
Conversions
This site offers a rather lengthy but thorough explanation of conversions from percent to decimal and decimal to fraction.

##### Media

Math Goodies
Percent Game
Great online game with conversions, and useful information. This is a wonderful site for students to learn about a lot of different math concepts. Attractive and easy to move around in.

Sporcle.com
Percent Equivalents
This terrific game site is highly addictive so be warned!. Great games on many subjects, this game requires you to convert fractions to percents in a timed quiz. Great for reinforcing conversions and challenging your quickest-thinking students.

• ## Geography in the USA

Kids.gov
Maps/Geography
Contains several links to other web resources and maps from government cites and other learning venues. Maps may be downloaded from their store. Some are free.

USGS.gov
US Geological Survey
This government website has maps and resources explaining the geography of our country.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Sheppardsoftware.com
USA MAPS
This wonderful site is filled with information about individual states, regions, landscapes, maps, and a host of other interesting facts. Very easy to navigate and full of useful information. Extremely useful for classroom activities.

Eduref.org
State Geography
For this group activity, students create posters advertising assigned regions of the US.

Three Dimensional Physical Map of the United States and Canada
Using various classroom supplies, students make a map of the US, carefully marking regions, rivers and landmarks.

Enchantedlearning.com
US Geography
Requires membership and log in. This site features a wide variety of classroom activities to help students learn about US geography including quizzes.

Nationalgeographic.com
Students use maps of the US to help better understand the country’s regions. This lesson plan also includes the idea of making a culture capsule that represents the specific region the class is in.

PBSkids.org
City, County, Community
This collection of lesson plans includes making travel brochures for US regions, using maps as learning tools and deciding on what makes a desirable community to live in.

Census.gov
FactFinder Kid’s Corner
This Is a fun site with lots of interesting facts and trivia about each state and quizzes. Good information, easy to navigate.

• ## How Do I (Work with Fractions)?

Education World
This website explains how to add and subtract fractions, and provides links to other helpful resources on the topic. The site is extensive and has worksheets and games in addition to excellent information. Excellent resource.

The Math Page
Multiply and Divide Fractions
Using examples, this site explains how to multiply and divide fractions.
Great detail in the explanation will help students who have a difficult time understanding. This is a good exercise for students with problems multiplying or dividing fractions. There are many great lessons on this site!

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach
Worksheet: Fraction Addition – Unlike (Set 1) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Addition – Unlike (Set 2) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Division – Unlike (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Multiplication – Unlike (Set 1) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Multiplication – Unlike (Set 2) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Subtraction – Unlike (Set 1) (PDF)
Worksheet: Fraction Subtraction – Unlike (Set 2) (PDF)
These worksheets allow students to practice subtracting and reducing unlike fractions. Bare bones worksheets, but get the job done. Can be easily downloaded and reprinted.

AtoZTeacherStuff
Fractions in Everyday Life
This activity uses household objects (measuring spoons, cups, etc) and a recipe which they double and multiply out even farther to show students how fractions are relevant in our everyday lives. Recipe with lots of fractions included. Could be fun.

Education World
Equivalent Fraction Bingo
This bingo game gives students practice in understanding the concepts of numerators and denominators. This could be fun! The bingo grid, fractions for the card and flash cards are all included. Easy to put together and use.

Slicing Up Fractions
Students review the concepts of equivalent fractions, adding fractions, and multiplying fractions as they solve problems involving pieces of pizza. Thorough and visually rewarding. Excellent as introduction to fractions or for younger students.

Math Forum
A Tour of Fractions
This collection of fractions lesson plans has a wide array of variety, from activities to reference materials. Lots of resources here on a variety of levels.

SCORE Mathematics
Pumpkin Pie for All!
This is a link to the quintessential pie/fraction lesson. California State standards are listed at the end.

##### Media

Math Playground
The Boston Marathon (video)
This animated video takes students on a step-by-step journey of figuring out a fractions problem about a runner’s speed when running the Boston Marathon. This is a fun site with other math games and puzzles too.

• ## Inversion

Math is Fun
Inverse Relationships
This site provides clear simple explanations on inverse relationships in addition and multiplication.

Reciprocal
Using examples, this website explains how to form reciprocals for use in algebra. Simple and clear explanation.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Illinois Institute of Technology
This activity teaches students about the additive inverse. A little tricky but useful.

• ## It’s Non-Fiction

Internet public library for teens
Steps to writing
This site is quite unusual. It describes in detail all the steps necessary in expository writing and does it with a sense of humor. Thorough and thoughtful.

Suite 101.com
Suite 101
Full of interesting pages of writing topics and samples, this site offers articles about prepositions, split infinitives, misused words, etc. Fertile territory for the interested writer. Very useful.

EssayStart.com
Essay writing
This site offers a step-by-step guide to writing an essay. It lists many different kinds of essays with hints and guides to effective essay writing for many different kinds of essays. Lots of selection and help. Easy to understand.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Fiction & Non-Fiction
This lesson plan helps students improve writing skill by including both fiction and non-fiction texts. Students compare, discuss and write original pieces.

Electronic messaging
A lesson plan that explores the language of electronic messaging and how it affects other writing. The lesson also examines the importance of a more formal style of writing based on the audience.

Writing ideas and topics
This site has a large number of lesson plans that illustrate and ask for the creation of many different kinds of writing. A goldmine of ideas!

Scholastic.com
Writing News
An activity-based site, this link is useful for teachers and students alike. It walks the reader through all of the steps of writing a news article and asks that you write one too. Students can submit works online for publishing.

• ## It’s All in the Surface

Math Is Fun
Cylinder
This site explains the characteristic of the cylinder, including the equations for findings its surface area and volume. Wonderful visuals.

Sphere
This site explains the characteristics of the sphere, and the equations for finding its surface area and volume. Like the previous sit, this has great visuals and wonderful information.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Illinois Institute of Technology
Volume and Surface Area
This activity teaches students the difference between volume and surface area.

Math Forum
Surface Area of a Sphere
This visualization exercise should help students better understand how to find the surface area of a sphere. This is an interesting site for visual understanding.

Thinkquest.org
Surface area of a sphere
This site explains things clearly with good visuals. Good for multiple grades.

Surface area of a cube
Great illustrations of all aspects of a cube. Easy to see and use.

Math2.org
Illustrations of objects
The mother lode of illustrations of various object and their formulas. A must for any classroom

• ## Lab Safety!

Lab Safety Supply
Resource Center
In addition to selling materials that promote lab safety, this site features links to resource centers in case of accidents or further safety questions. Very useful for information on specific topics or for lab safety supplies. Good resource for teachers.

The Laboratory Safety Institute
The Laboratory Safety Institute
This site features training programs, consultation services, publications, an audio-visual lending library, products, video rental, education resources links to other sites, news and much more. Good resource for teachers

Teaching Today
How to Manage a Science Lab
This site gives teachers a detailed guide how to manage their science lab classrooms. Site also provides excellent teaching strategies for all grades in science and includes a special section for teachers of ELL students. Excellent resource for teachers.

Science Newsfor Kids
Lab Safetyfor Kids
This excellent site has guides for teachers, students, and laboratory assistants. Clear, easy to read and understand. Also links to other science and lab sites.

Love to Know
Lab Safety Symbols
This site is a slide show with pictures of all of the lab safety symbols. Very useful in a middle school or high school lab. Also very good for ELL students.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

FunTrivia.com
Lab safety Quiz
A fairly basic information quiz for younger students, this can be very useful for review or discussion. Easy and nicely done.

Biology Corner
Lab Safety
This site has an illustration of students in a chemistry lab, and asks students to answer questions about what they see. Easier to work on if you make hard copies.

The Educator’s Reference Desk
First Aid Kit
This activity gives an in-depth look at first aid kits in case of accidents.

Glencoe Online
Lab Safety Worksheet
Before labs, students should fill out this worksheet, outlining their safety concerns and pre-lab rituals. Useful for older students and good for starting discussion.

Science Spot
Science Safety Rules
Students are asked to read an excerpt about the Bikini Bottom Gang in the science lab, and then point out what mistakes were made by the gang. The worksheet also features a list of the science safety rules, and notes to the teacher. A useful exercise.

We The Teachers
Tools of Science (Presentation)
This MS Powerpoint presentation illustrates lab tools, which teachers can use as visuals as discussing safety rules. Or teachers can use this as a guide for making their own presentations. Requires registration and log in, but it is free. Good resource for teachers.

• ## Layers of the Earth

A Virtual Journey into the Universe
The Planet Earth
This website provides a detailed summary of the earth’s layers. Colorful and impressive with information.

Kids.gov
Earth Science
This is a list of suggested government websites for learning more about the science of earth and our land. There is a lot of information on a wide variety of topics.

Thinkquest
Earth’s Structure
This site describes the inside of the earth layer by layer and provides a diagram. It also provides links to excellent sources for further study of plate tectonics, formation of the earth and other earth-related topics.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach
Layers of Earth
This worksheet has large blank spaces next to a diagram of the earth’s layers so that students can fill it in. Very adaptable to additions to the diagram if more detail is desired. Great for young students or as introduction to study of earth.

Discovery Education
Tales of Terrain
These lesson plans go beyond basic understanding of the earth’s layers, and discusses drifts, volcanoes, landforms, and more. The activities include applying the themes to novels such as Treasure Island or Call of the Wild.

My Science Box
Journey Through Earth
This section of the website is broken into 5 subsections, each with activities and summaries about the layers of the earth. Lot of information, activities and related topics. Multiple grade levels as well.

The New York Times Learning Network
Solid as a Rock: An In-Depth Exploration into the Layers of the Earth
In this lesson, students will learn about and create models of the earth’s layers, and then synthesize their learning by writing short stories about journeys to the center of the earth.

##### Media

Passport to Knowledge (P2K)
TakeAim at Climate Change
This clever music video produced by RRR and Polar Palooza for P2K addresses issues concerning global warming with catchy informative lyrics and National Geographic film footage of Antarctica. Site also has printed lyrics, downloads and good information. Unique and a great way to start any study of earth science. Suitable for all grades.

• ## Mean, Median, Mode

Though there are many sites with information and exercises, these were selected because
of their variety and thoroughness with minimum of advertising. All are open source.

BBC Maths
This site that uses simple, straightforward definitions and examples to help students learn mean, median, mode and subsequent concepts. The games for younger students use colorful graphics, real world examples and familiar objects. (see if your students can spot the typographical error in the first game finding ‘mean’). The more sophisticated games are suitable for older student up through 10th grade. Includes a “Test Bite” at the end; a quiz that will help reinforce the concepts presented on the site. Several levels.

Quia.com
A clever game called “Rags to Riches” could be fun as an individual or team activity. Good for boosting addition skills as well.

Math Is Fun
A reliable site with good information and games for younger students. A couple of examples use negative numbers in their computation. A good skill-building site.

Sporcle Games : Mean, Median
The interactive games on Sporcle will help students reinforce their knowledge of median and mode. Definitions are not provided, so students should have some prior knowledge before playing. Games are timed so good math skills are helpful. Good for team activity.

Math Goodies
This Math Goodies site provides clear definitions of mean, median and mode, with sample math problems and solutions for students to examine. At the end of each “lesson,” there are several practice problems for students to solve on their own. At the bottom of the page there are other games including explanations and games for non-routine mean solving as well as some interesting ‘challenge’ exercises.

• ## Meters, Liters, and Grams

ABCTeach
Math Chart: Metric Conversions (PDF)
This table features measurement conversions from U.S. to Metric, and Metric to U.S. Useful for classroom or individual study.

Convert-me.com
Conversion Tables
This website will help students with any conversions they need to make.

Math Is Fun
Measuring Metrically with Maggie
This website directs students through the basics of using the metric system. Colorful and easy to navigate, this is a great place for younger students or as an introductory lesson.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

The Science Spot
Metric Mania
Wow! It doesn’t get any better than this for resources, links, games, puzzles, worksheets, charts and anything else you want or need to teach metrics. There are also some good exercises and a power point comparing metric to US standard measuring. Something for everyone on this site.

AtoZTeacherStuff
Metric Conversion
By taking actual measurements of various objects, students learn how to convert Metric into U.S.

Columbia Education Center
Metric Equivalents
Students will use a shortcut method to change one metric unit to another by using a diagram.

Discovery Education
A Metric World
This lesson plan teaches students how to convert metric measurements into the standard system, and challenges students to think about how measurements are used in our daily lives. A good activity that can be done as a class or in small groups.

Math Forum
Metric Conversions
This board game enables students to practice converting one unit of metric length to another unit of metric length and to interpret metric abbreviations. A good class activity.

##### Media

Sporcle.com
Measuring Game
This fun game tests students’ knowledge of both metric and standard systems. It is a timed quiz and great fun for a class, buddies or individuals to play. Good information, requiring some knowledge.

• ## Multicellular Organisms

Bartleby.com
Anatomy of the Human Body

This online edition of Henry Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body features 1,247 vibrant engravings from the classic 1918 publication, as well as a subject index with 13,000 entries. It is truly a comprehensive work. Good for serious students.

BodyQuest
Find
This website provides a listing of different body parts and systems with links to complete descriptions. Good illustrations. Quiz is available.

human body tissue
This site has good information and illustrations of different kinds of tissue. Excellent illustrations of smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue.

cell anatomy
This site provides good information and illustration of cell anatomy and reproduction. Ads on the site may not be desirable in the classroom so teachers should vet the site before using.

Innerbody.com
Human Anatomy Online
This website allows students to choose a system of the human body, and to then navigate in depth through diagrams and explanations. Good information, but dense.

MEDtropolis
The Virtual Body
This website gives you a virtual tour of the human body, focusing on the brain, heart, skeleton and digestive track. Good pictures and information. Available in Spanish and English

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Discovery Education
Muscles in Motion
This activity requires the use of dumbbells. The goal is to help students understand how muscles work together, but also have unique capabilities.

Discovery Education
The Ultimate Guide: The Human Body
This activity helps students to see the body as a collection of systems that work together for the success of the whole entity. (The activity was written for high school students, though it definitely seems to be applicable to middle school. It also recommends purchasing a supplementary video from Discovery Education, but that also does not seem necessary.) Lots of links to other sites.

Education World: The Educator’s Best Friend
Human Body Simon Says Game
This website provides detailed instructions for a body-themed game of Simon Says. Good game for all grade levels.

Education World: The Educator’s Best Friend
The Human Body: An Online Tour
This website has activity ideas, trivia, links to other resources, and detailed information about the human body and its systems.

Science Museum of Minnesota
Tissues of Life
This interactive website will teach students more about tissues, and provide photos and demonstrations for deeper understanding. Excellent site for curious students. Ability to manipulate illustrations adds to understanding.

Science Spot
This website provides a worksheet of word games related to the human body. Detailed and well written this is an excellent study sheet or activity.

Teach-nology.com
The Cardiac 100
This activity asks students to imagine that they are blood cells that need to teach new blood cells the way around the circulatory system. Good activity for groups or a class to do together.

• ## Order of Operations – Advanced

The sources listed here are some of the best we found for the grade levels indicated.

Order of Operations Article
An excellent article to read for older students and teachers.

Mathblag.Order of Operations Misconceptions

RESOURCES and ACTIVITIES

Math-aids.Order of Operations
Order of Operations worksheets for younger students or introductory classes

Math is Fun.
This site walks students through the order of operations using PEMDAS, and includes sample problems for review and practice. A great site for younger students

Math.com.Lessons
This site offers an opportunity to have a problem explained in detail and then allows students to participate in interactive problem solving. Excellent for review or individual study.

Math Goodies
This site provides a straightforward explanation of the order of operations, clearly explaining the “do’s” and “don’ts” of solving math problems with the correct order of operations. It features a set of completed example problems, and practice problems for students to solve on their own.
Lots of levels of problem solving.

Amby.com. Tutorial
This is a tutorial that provides opportunity for practicing order of operations through interactive problems.

Nat. Council of Teachers of Math
The NCTM site is a lesson plan designed around teaching, and playing, Order of Operations Bingo. Students use their understanding of operations to solve problems within the context of this familiar game.

Sparknotes
This site illustrates how to solve algebraic equations. Too much advertising to use in class, however, you can copy and paste the examples.

Purplemath
This is a great site for teachers or beginning algebra students. Long and detailed with multiple examples.

This game site has games, etc. for all levels. Some games require flash or power point, but many are accessible. They vary in degree of difficulty. Some will take you to other excellent sites.

• ## Order of Operations – Standard

The sources listed here are some of the best we found for the grade levels indicated.

Order of Operations Article
An excellent article to read for older students and teachers.

Mathblag.Order of Operations Misconceptions

RESOURCES and ACTIVITIES

Math-aids.Order of Operations
Order of Operations worksheets for younger students or introductory classes

Math is Fun.
This site walks students through the order of operations using PEMDAS, and includes sample problems for review and practice. A great site for younger students

Math.com.Lessons
This site offers an opportunity to have a problem explained in detail and then allows students to participate in interactive problem solving. Excellent for review or individual study.

Math Goodies
This site provides a straightforward explanation of the order of operations, clearly explaining the “do’s” and “don’ts” of solving math problems with the correct order of operations. It features a set of completed example problems, and practice problems for students to solve on their own.
Lots of levels of problem solving.

Amby.com. Tutorial
This is a tutorial that provides opportunity for practicing order of operations through interactive problems.

Nat. Council of Teachers of Math
The NCTM site is a lesson plan designed around teaching, and playing, Order of Operations Bingo. Students use their understanding of operations to solve problems within the context of this familiar game.

Sparknotes
This site illustrates how to solve algebraic equations. Too much advertising to use in class, however, you can copy and paste the examples.

Purplemath
This is a great site for teachers or beginning algebra students. Long and detailed with multiple examples.

This game site has games, etc. for all levels. Some games require flash or power point, but many are accessible. They vary in degree of difficulty. Some will take you to other excellent sites.

• ## Parts of Speech

330 Grammar
Parts of Speech
This site provides definitions for various parts of speech. Easy to navigate and clear definitions that are easy to understand.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach
Actions of Animals (PDF)
This worksheet provides a word bank from which students must choose verbs (all past tense) to describe the action of animals. This exercise teaches how to use verbs and the creative use of verbs.

She or Her: Grammar and Classics (PDF)
This reading comprehension activity teaches students the difference of pronouns and possessives. Uses and Alice in Wonderland written example.

Subject Pronouns (PDF)
This is a worksheet about subject pronouns, object pronouns and possessive pronouns. It allows students to practice using them. Good exercise.

Vocabulary Word Strips (PDF)
These word strips illustrate the prepositions for easier understanding and remembrance. Good visual reference to reinforce memory.

What is a Verb? (PDF)
This brief worksheet explains the usage of verb and then has a section for students to practice using them.

AtoZTeacherStuff.com
This classroom activity allows students to think creatively about how to describe various food products. This is a fun exercise for everyone.

The Educator’s Reference Desk
This activity suggests having students edit restaurant menus, focusing on inserting exciting adjectives.

Education World
Packing Nouns
This game reinforces students’ knowledge of nouns, and encourages listening skills, as students cannot repeat a noun that another student has already used.

Preposition House
This activity uses a drawing of a house and its details to teach students prepositions. Good visual memory exercise.

##### Media

Sporcle.com
Parts of Speech (interactive quiz)
Warning! These games are addictive and a lot of fun to play online! This site is packed with fun games in Language arts. Everything from Parts of Speech to all kinds of vocabulary building. Quizzes are timed.

Points of Grammar (interactive quiz)
This Sporcle game tests your knowledge of parts of speech in the song and some that aren’t. A lot of fun!

• ## Periodic Table

Finding excellent sites for the study of the periodic table proved challenging. We offer a variety of sites and activities for grades 5-10

Chem4Kids
A wealth of information on chemistry and the periodic table, and other topics. Relatively simple site that provides a good framework review essential chemistry facts.

Good for grade 5 and up.

Science for Kids
This site explains and explores chemical reactions and states of matter. Lots of details. Geared towards older students.

This “Avogadro’s Element Hunt” will help students learn the elements by offering examples of their presence in our everyday lives, providing a real-world application for terms.

Sporcle
A memory-recall game that reinforces existing knowledge of the periodic table. Students type in a element’s name: the correct box on the periodic table lights up. A working knowledge of the periodic table is needed.

Dynamic Periodic Table
A colorful, very detailed and information-packed periodic table. Displays elements’ symbols and names, atomic numbers, states of matter, and family the element is in. Best for students who have previous experience with a more basic version of the table.

Periodic Table

This highly imaginative site offers the table with pictures of the elements as they exist in their purest and familiar forms. Excellent to show students how the elements exist in the “real world.”

Chemicool
Great Periodic Table. Some history and clear concise definitions and explanations.

Jefferson labs
Jefferson Labs presents all basic and some historic information on each of the elements. In depth, easy to read and understand, this site is a great to begin research on specific elements or gain better understanding.

• ## Photosynthesis

FT Exploring.com
Photosynthesis
This site is for younger students and has a nice humorous feeling to the information without being silly.

Northeastern Area State & Forestry
Why Leaves Change Color
This website gives a detailed account of photosynthesis. Good information. Extensive.

Photosynthesis
This website has a step-by-step breakdown of the process of photosynthesis. Easy to understand.

SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Why Leaves Change Color
This website gives a brief overview of the process of photosynthesis, focusing on how and why leaves change color.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

The Great Plant Escape
Plant Detective
This site has students follow a “plant” case like a detective would. Charming and full of good information. Text is available in English and Spanish.

Columbia Education Center
Photosynthesis and Transpiration
This experiment involves the growing of pea plants to observe how photosynthesis and transpiration work. Relatively easy to do.

Discovery Education
Yummy Plant Parts
This classroom experiment teaches students in great detail about the parts of plants by using vegetables as subjects, and their importance to the lives of humans. Tissue samples from the vegetables are also analyzed. Some vocabulary and additional projects. Excellent project.

Newton’s Apple.tv
Leaf change
Good information with an easy experiment.

Education World: The Educator’s Best Friend
Photosynthesis: Don’t “Leaf” Out Fall’s Most Valuable Lesson!
This article has several classroom activity ideas regarding photosynthesis, including projects with real leaves. It also contains links to other resources.

Photosynthesis: Why Leaves Change Color
This website provides a True/False quiz for students to take after reading the provided informational link.

My Science Box
Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration)
This site has detailed instructions for six different experiments, all geared towards helping students better understand the process of photosynthesis, aka the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle. It also features background information to help students understand context.

National Geographic Xpeditions
Photosynthesis, Trees, and the Greenhouse Effect
In this lesson, students will study photosynthesis and then transfer their understanding of this topic to a consideration of how trees can help reduce the negative impacts of the greenhouse effect. The website also includes helpful links to other resources about photosynthesis.

PBS NOVA Online
Illuminating Photosynthesis
This feature takes a look at the oxygen/carbon dioxide cycle, the molecular distribution, and at the process of photosynthesis. Also included are a few puzzlers. Easily understood with good illustration.

Teaching Today
Photosynthesis
This experiment explains the role of pigments in photosynthesis. This site offers different types of approaches depending on student’s learning modality. Well done effort to incorporate learning for all students in a classroom.

##### Media

John Kyrk
Photosynthesis (animation)
This site features a clever animated outline of the process of photosynthesis. Though difficult for students who may be color-blind, the text is available in many languages including Spanish and French. Extremely well done. Excellent for chemistry students too.

MSN Encarta
Photosynthesis (demonstration)
This site has 6 different demonstrations related to photosynthesis. Excellent presentation and good illustrations.

Teacher’s Domain
Photosynthesis (video)
This is a video segment from NOVA: Earth that explains plant biology and our present-day understanding of photosynthesis. It has closed caption for hard-of- hearing students or if viewed where audio cannot be used.

• ## Poetry (for Life)

Harris Middle School
Introduction to Poetic Writing
This site is an overview of the process of writing a poem.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

AtoZTeacherstuff.com
Appreciating Poetry
This activity teaches students to synthesize and interpret poems using artwork.

Introduction to Poetry
This classroom activity compares music to poetry, and encourages students to think creatively and freely about what poems are.

Eduref.org
Knowing Ourselves and Others Through Poetry
Students are asked to identify their current moods, and then translate those feelings into a biographical poem.

Performing Poetry
This lesson plan includes several activity ideas, including having students perform poems for each other.

Poetry Cubes
Teachers give students cubes with a poem written on each side. Then the students choose a poem to interpret for the class.

Step Up to the Plate Poetry
This activity asks students to research the Negro Baseball League, to read “Casey at the Bat” and other famous poems, and then write their own poem expressing their feelings about this historic entity.

Educationworld.com
Comparing Two Poe Classics
This activity asks students to use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast two Edgar Allan Poe classics. This activity can be easily altered using other authors.

Poetry Shopping Spree
Students “shop” for poems that provide examples of literary elements/devices such as metaphors, similes, personification, imagery, or onomatopoeia.

Harris Middle School
The “Art” of Poetry
This activity asks students to illustrate their best poem on the sidewalk using chalk. This can be done outside.

Famous Poems, and Poets, Poems: Far and Near: A World of Words
Though this classroom activity was designed for a specific school district, it can be applied using any state’s standards. Teachers are to design a poetry scavenger hunt using their required poems. Though adaptable to all grades, this is probably best for Grades 5-12.

Free Verse
This activity describes free verse poetry, and gives students prompts for writing their own.

Haiku
This activity teaches students about haikus and gives examples. Students are then asked to write their own.

Imagery
Students are asked to identify imagery within a poem, and then to write their own poems using creative imagery.

Limerick
This lesson plan describes limericks, and then has several activities including snapping the rhythm of a limerick and filling in pieces of one that’s partially written.

Nytimes.com
Poetry
This website has activity ideas and lesson plans, as well as links to other resources about poetry.

Pete’s PowerPoint Station
Poetry
This website has powerpoints, lesson plans, activities, examples of poems, quizzes and links to other resources about poetry. Interesting site for all grades

• ## Prefixes, Suffixes, Roots

BetterEndings.com
Prefix,Suffix Roots Chart
Easy to read chart to help students understand prefixes, suffices and roots. Definitions of each are provided. Easy to download and copy for classroom use.

PrefixSuffix.com: English Language Roots Reference
English Language Roots, Suffixes and Syllables
This site provides comprehensive detailing of prefixes, suffixes and roots, two games, a great chart and links to other resources. Highly recommended!

Virtualsalt.com
Root Words and Prefixes
This site explains in excellent detail how words are formed. A good template for teaching root words, prefixes and suffixes. A table of prefixes and word roots with definitions is attached.

Greek and Latin Roots
This site has several pages with interesting information about root words, prefixes and suffixes based in Latin and Greek with accompanying lists of words. Lots of really good information.

Mr. Hanno’s unit
Greek and Latin Roots
This site is simply a chart of Greek and Latin roots to English words. Some suffixes are listed as well.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Flip-a-Chip: Examining Affixes and Roots to Build Vocabulary
This classroom game focuses on filling in stories with the proper prefixes and suffixes. This could be fun and expanded on with more words.

Improve Comprehension Using a Word Card Game with Root Words and Affixes
In this lesson, students practice analyzing word meanings by learning root words and affixes. They work in a variety of ways with a list of about 20 common but challenging words to learn the definition and spelling of each. Then they get in small groups to design and play the Make-a-Word card game.

Scholastic
Bill Klepper, Fat Cat (PDF)
This PDF worksheet focuses on prefixes and root words. Quite clever and fun.

bingo lingo (PDF)
This clever but challenging bingo game enforces a strong knowledge of root words.

• ## Public Speaking

Education World
Books in Education Article: “Speaking Up, Speaking Out: A Kids’ Guide to Making Speeches, Oral Reports and Conversation”
This article reviews the book, Speaking Up, Speaking Out: A Kids’ Guide to Making Speeches, Oral Reports and Conversation. If able to acquire from the library, this book will be helpful for providing further reading on public speaking. Teacher Resource

KidsTurnCentral.com
Speechmaking
This site has quite a few links to a variety of sites that can help middle school students write and develop a speech with confidence.

Afraid-of-speaking
Speaking confidently
Though a little wordy, this site has some excellent suggestion for helping students make notes and plan a speech.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach
Write a Speech
This simple worksheet helps students form an outline for a speech.

Education World
It’s Up For Debate
This activity asks student to engage in debates about various topics as to develop their public speaking skills. It also provides links to other debate activities.

The Educator’s Reference Desk
Students are asked to create a mock jury, and then other students present cases for or against a new school dress code. This activity helps students to become better public speakers, and better analysts of speeches and arguments.

Delivering a Persuasive Speech
This activity teaches students about how to deliver a persuasive speech. It involves both performing and analyzing others.

Effective Speaking in a Debate
This activity teaches students how to deal with stage fright in relation to public speaking. (Though it is intended for high school students, it could work for middle school students, too.)

Four Corners Debate
This classroom activity asks students to choose one of four positions on a controversial topic chosen by the teacher. Students must then defend their position to the class.

Introduction to Argument
This activity breaks down the process of creating a strong argument, and asks students to think critically about how to approach public speaking. Useful for English writing classes as well.

PBS: Standard Deviants TV
This website provides helpful hints for becoming a strong public speakers, as well as a quiz and links to other resources.

Pete’s PowerPoint Station
Speaking and Listening
This is a collection of PowerPoint presentations to use in the classroom, ranging from how to write a speech to 101 ways to improve your communications skills.

Teaching Ideas
Speaking Nonsense
This classroom activity teaches students to drop negative speaking habits and to pick up stronger ones.

ASPIRE: Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research & Education
This website uses the example of cooking popcorn to describe the three methods of heating. Excellent explanations. Good for all grades as an introduction.

Mansfield, CT Schools
This website gives a brief overview of the concepts of convection, conduction and radiation. The Heat Game at the end is a good review of concepts taught here.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Jefferson Labs
Vocabulary Hangman
This extraordinary site is a goldmine of great games and puzzles that are all science related. You can choose topics, grade levels and even add your own vocabulary lists. A great way to learn spelling and definitions of science terms.

The Educator’s Reference Desk
Hot Rot
This activity asks students to measure the amount of heat energy created by decomposing organic matter.

Cool Cosmos
Forms of Heat
This site has several links to resources explaining different ways of generating heat. A link at the bottom of the page directs you to games.

HotChalk’s Lesson Plans Page
Passing the Heat Along
This experiment is designed to teach students about conductors and the passing of heat. Offers a variety of simple but good examples.

Science-Teachers.com
Heat Worksheets and Activities

##### Media

Several short videos on radiation, conduction and convection done by various organizations, teachers and classes. Good introduction material. Brief and to the point.

• ## Redcoats vs. Rebels

AmericasLibrary.gov
Revolutionary Period (1764-1789)
Reading only, this site provides links to a wide variety of topics related to the Revolutionary Period. Good for reports and extra credit assignments.

PBS.org
Liberty! The American Revolution
There is a lot of excellent information and a game to play on this easy to navigate and attractive site. Excellent for individual or group study.

Military Perspectives
Pictures and text detail the differences between British and American soldiers’ uniforms, gear, weaponry, and social status.

Timeline of the Revolution
A detailed timeline of the American Revolution from 1760-1791.

Chronicle of the Revolution
Very comprehensive. The site provides a link to each city and an in-depth summary of the events that happened in the city that are significant to the Revolutionary War.

USHistory.org
Virtual Marching Tour of the American Revolution
Photographs and detailed information from major battles in the Revolutionary War.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Discoveryeducation.com
American Revolution Games
Has lesson plans for 6-12 on American Revolution. Excellent site for games, lesson plans and other helpful ideas.

EdHelper.com
American Revolution Theme Unit
Fee-based subscription. Comprehensive American Revolution website including quizzes, maps, reading comprehension, biographies and much more for many grades.

Education World.com
The American Revolution
Though a little confusing to navigate, Education World has links to other resources for the American Revolution and classroom activities including charades and rebus puzzles.

History.org
Loyalty or Liberty?
A role-playing adventure. Students play the part of a slave who must choose to side with the British Loyalists or the Patriots. Interesting and unusual. Good classroom discussion material!

PBS.org (Video)
Factors that Handicapped the British
This lesson plan recommends watching the fourth episode of “Liberty!” The material analyzes which factors led to American victory over the British.

The Reluctant Revolutionaries
This lesson plan recommends watching the first and second episodes of “Liberty!” and reading Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. The goal is to help students realize the tough decision-making process colonists were faced with before the war.

Revolutionary War Music (songs)
This lesson plan investigates some of the famous songs of the Revolutionary War period and examines how music helped convey messages of patriotism and popular sentiments.

##### Media

BrainPOP.com
American Revolution (video) (subscription and log-in required)
Tim and Moby teach students the basics of the Revolutionary War.

Discoveryeducation.com
Rebels and Redcoats & An Army of Amateurs – The Revolutionary War 5 Pack
(video)
The war for American independence began almost by accident, when a single, unidentified shot rang out at Lexington. Examine the decade of conflict that sparked rebellion, as well as the Continental Congress’ decision to hire a
physically imposing Virginia aristocrat to lead its army.

The Revolutionary War (video)
Charles Kuralt hosts a searing portrait of the struggle from the first rebellion of the farmers against the redcoats to the final victory at Yorktown.

PBS.org
LIBERTY! The American Revolution (video series) (check listings for viewing times)
A six-part series of one-hour documentaries describes how the American Revolution evolved and how a new nation was born in the aftermath of the Revolutionary War.

• ## Rise Up (Run Out)

EHow.com
Definition of Linear equation
A clear and full definition and explanation of what a linear equation is and how to create linear equations. An excellent resource for students or teachers.

How to Write Linear Equations
This informative site shows you how to write a linear equation given two points using a graph as an illustration and providing step-by-step instructions. Very helpful for classroom or independent study.

All of the Math is Fun sites have activities and games as well as excellent definitions. They are for all grades, but beginning levels are emphasized in the explanations and games. Grades 2-5 benefit the most.

Math is Fun
Cartesian Coordinates
This lesson teaches students about quadrants, Cartesian coordinates and the X and Y axis. This really fun site has lots of games and excellent information presented clearly and concisely. Interactive, colorful with excellent visuals. A great place to begin study of graphs.

Equation of a Straight Line
Using examples of graphs, this lesson explains how y = mx + b works. Excellent explanations.

Explore the Properties of a Straight Line Graph
This lesson features a graph that allows students to move the M and B variables so they can better understand how variables affect the overall graph.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Department of Mathematics at Rice University
Stressed Out: Slope as Rate of Change
This lesson plan gives students an in-depth look at slopes and graphing. This is a good site for older students or those with some experience with graphs.

Education World
Graph Mole
This lesson plan makes use of a fun interactive tutorial and game that shows why coordinates are useful and how they work. Easy to difficult levels of game.

Linear Equations Game
This game asks students to practice solving linear equations for one variable. Good for large classes where students can work in pairs.

Education World
Play Battleship on Graph Paper
This game gives students practicing in plotting points on a coordinate plane. Adaptable to many grade levels.

Graphing chameleon
This site is connected to the ‘Play Battleship on Graph Paper’ site, but is worthy of its own site. Excellent definitions and explanations for all grades.

Mrs. Gosser’s Math Goodies
Line Graphs
This site has lots of illustrations and problems showing graphing. Excellent source. Clear, easy to understand.

SCORE Mathematics
Greedy Dog Game
Great game for young students to learn about negative numbers and the beginnings of graphing.

Coordinate Graphing
This lesson plan comes complete with links to quizzes and activities. The overall goal of the activities is to give students practice with plotting points on a coordinate plane. Lots of possibilities here many age groups and levels.

Graphing games
Several really good games for middle school students.

• ## Sit Down & Write

NWP.org National Writing Project
Ten Ideas That Get Kids Writing
This website has links to other writing projects and resources, and gives helpful hints as to how teachers can motivate students. Tips include encouragement and choosing topics of interest.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach.com
Student Writing Checklist
When writing for an academic purpose, students can use this checklist to ensure that they are on the right track.

Think and Write (PDF)
This worksheet booklet is filled with topics for students to write about, from fictional life on other plants to where they would visit if they could go back in time. The goal is to make students think creatively about the topics they can write about.

Writing
ABCTeach’s writing directory is full of writing prompts and activities.

Writing an Essay: The Basics (PDF)
This worksheets provides an organizational structure for students learning how to write a cohesive essay.

AtoZTeacherStuff.com
This activity teaches students to write autobiographies and biopoems, and to then interview other students and write biographies for them.

The Other Tall Tales
This activity asks students to study tall tales, and then to write one of their own.

Eduref.org
Creating a Class Newspaper
By having students create a classroom newspaper, they realize that writing can be more than just turning in reports.

Creative Writing – What Would Happen If?
This writing exercise encourages students to think creatively and really use their imagination.

I Can Write; I’m an Author!
This lesson plan teaches students how to write narratives.

Letter Writing: The Lost Art
This lesson plan teaches students how to write friendly letters and business letters.

Pen Pals
By setting up a pen pal system, students learn that writing can be fun and does not always have to be graded.

The Personal Touch: A Lesson in Expository Writing
This activity teaches students how to appropriately insert aspects of their own lives into their expository writing.

This classroom activity uses fortune cookie messages as inspiration for writing stories.

Educationworld.com
“Write” On Target: Writing Assignments for Fun, Friendship and Family
This site suggests three different classroom activities for getting students to write.

Mrdonn.org
writing exercises
This site has countless resources for learning how to write. It covers creative writing to school reports, and features activities, online games and links to other resources. Not great but good ideas.

SCORE (California Online Resources for Education)
Journaling
This website gives examples and teaching ideas for getting students to keep journals.

• ## Sun, Earth, Moon

Kid’s Astronomy
Interactive Solar System
This site provides information about the solar system, including earth and its moon, and comets and asteroids. Easy to navigate.

NASA
Sun for Kids
This site gives an overview of the sun, plus ten interesting pieces of sun trivia.

Soho
Sun as a Star
Also a great site, interesting facts about our sun are offered as well as excellent pictures.

Nine Planets
Our Moon
This website provides fascinating trivia about earth’s moon. Good introduction to study of the moon.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Amazing Space
Sun and Planets
This site has a Solar System Trading Cards game that identifies sun, planets, comets and asteroids. Excellent pictures of planets as well. Student should be familiar with planets before attempting this game.

NASA
Earth from Space
This collection of official NASA photos features the shots taken by astronauts from outer space. Cool site to explore and try to find your location.

Sun-Earth Day
This website contains several links to activities and lesson plans about the relationship between the sun and the earth. This site offers many activities and projects in Spanish as well as English for multiple grade levels. Excellent resource.

Windows to the Universe
Our Moon
An excellent site with good information and links to additional information about the moon, the site offers Spanish and English in beginner, intermediate and advanced levels. Links at the bottom of the page take you to games, lessons and projects.

Lunar Explorer
This activity helps students plan a trip to the moon.

Stanford Solar Center
Lesson Plans
This site offers a wide variety of classroom activities about the sun.

Universe Today
Moon for Kids
This site has an excellent photo/picture of the phases of the moon that is easy to understand. Also it explains how to have students create “Moon Journals.”

##### Media

Passport to Knowledge (P2K)
TakeAim at Climate Change
This clever music video produced by RRR and Polar Palooza for P2K addresses issues concerning global warming with catchy informative lyrics and National Geographic film footage of Antarctica. Site also has printed lyrics, downloads and good information. Unique and a great way to start any study of earth science. Suitable for all grades.

KidsKnowIt Network
Why Does the Sun Shine (song)
This simple song pronounces the importance of the sun.

• ## The Civil War

Schmoop
The Causes of Civil War
Contains helpful information on the war’s causes, along with a timeline, biographies, and more The site also contains other helpful information on US history and civics.

Civil-war.net
The Civil War Homepage
This comprehensive website contains links to other resources, as well as battle maps, official war records, images, research materials and much more.

Socialstudiesforkids.com
The Civil War

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Discoveryeducation.com
The Civil War: A Nation Divided
Lesson plans, activities, links and a glossary of terms. It primarily focuses on the causes of the war, and the role of Abraham Lincoln.

EdHelper.com
Civil War Theme Unit

Educationworld.com
Civil War Lesson Plan and Activities
Page has over a dozen lesson plans about the Civil War, including a worksheet for making timelines and recipes of foods that soldiers often ate.

Lessonplanspage.com
A lesson plan describes converts the card game ‘War’ into a history lesson.

Teach-nology.com
American Civil War Worksheets
Hosts a wide variety of worksheets with Civil War content.

##### Media

BrainPOP.com
Civil War (video) (log-in NOT required – special feature)
This video is a Q&A about the events of the Civil War.

Causes of the Civil War (video) (log-in required)
Tim and Moby teach students about the two major issues that led to the Civil War — slavery and states’ rights. The video explains how newly formed states fell into the slavery/states’ rights equation, and why some of the established states sided with the North on some issues, while siding with the South on others.

• ## The Planets

Though there are many excellent resources online, we chose these because of their excellence and lack of advertisements or other screen distractions. The information on these sites is open source and free.

RESOURCES AND LESSON PLANS
Solar System
“Solar System 101″ video is an excellent introduction to the study of the planets. Has interesting info about the Earth’s moon as well.

NASA.Planets
NASA’s comprehensive overview of the planets. “Solar System Scoreboard” allows students to compare planets in terms of size, composition, year of discovery, etc.

Kids Astronomy
This “space dictionary” covers essential space terms in user-friendly language. Some unfamiliar terms, but useful vocabulary enrichment!

Discovery Education
A good glossary, particularly for younger students. Presents key terms in clear language.

National Geographic
A comprehensive and well-laid out overview of space with a link to specific information. Excellent visuals and diagrams, well-done photographs, and links to other relevant topics.

Astromony

This site has some excellent introductory information on each of the planets, observing from urban skies, and an introduction to the sky and astronomy myths.

An excellent resource for students of all ages; includes recommendations of relevant books, and links to websites, key vocabulary.

High Quality lesson links for teachers.

Space Photos
Excellent photographs of the planets, their satellites, and our solar system; an incredible catalogue.

Excellent for all ages

Protoplanets, Planetesimals
Universe Today is excellent for information about protoplanets and planetesimals. Some advertising.

GAMES AND ACTIVITIES
NASA/Kids
Puzzles and factoids abound! Another great NASA resource.

NASA/Kids.Solar System
This excellent site produced by NASA includes additional links to other kid-oriented NASA websites. Games for younger children and more advanced sites for older students.

NASA/StarChild Game
A ‘relative’ of the NASA sites, this site is devoted to games. A fun site for younger students.

Windows Universe (NESTA)
This National Earth Science Teachers Association site has good games for older students.

• ## The President’s Cabinet

Teachervision.fen.com
U.S. President’s Cabinet
This website provides a description of each department featured in the Cabinet. Though subscription-based, you are allowed access to a certain number of documents before you must log-in.

Whitehouse.gov
The President’s Cabinet
Students will get a brief summary of the Cabinet, as well as detailed profiles and pictures of member.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Trumanlibrary.org
A Cabinet Meeting
For this activity, the teacher will form an agenda for a mock Cabinet meeting, and assign roles to each student. There are other games and puzzles on this site as well.

Middleschool.net
The President’s Cabinet (internet & printers required)
Students will use computers to create templates for collecting information and photographs of each secretary, and then print them to form larger charts.

PBS.org
The President’s Cabinet: Choosing the Right Person for the Job
This is a multi-day lesson plan designed to give students an opportunity to better understand the three branches of government, and checks and balances. The activities include graphing data and participating in a classroom debate. National curriculum standards are listed.

##### Media

BrainPOP.com
Branches of Government (video) (subscription and login required)
Tim and Moby talk about the three different branches of the United States government and how the system of checks and balances helps limit the power of each branch.

• ## The Rest of the Amendments (11-27)

archives.gov
Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27
This is a full transcript of Amendments 11-27 with notes on changes.

Congressforkids.net
Amendments
Has good reading list on Amendments and related subjects

civil-war.net
This is a content-rich site for many topics including an excellent copy of Amendments 11-27. Informative and easy to navigate, this site is useful for many topics related to American history and government.

ConstitutionCenter.org
Amendments 11-27
Excellent explanations of all of the amendments plus an ability to download and print in other languages. Interactive

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Eduref.org
US Constitution and Amendments
This lesson plan has the goal of teaching students about the Constitution’s constant presence in our lives through debate and a project with newspaper articles.

EducationWorld.com
Create a New Amendment
A lesson plan that has students propose new amendments based on what they think our Constitution lacks.

##### Media

Classbrain.com
Amendments Match
Short matching game using a selection of Amendments. Good review although doesn’t cover all of the amendments.

Congressforkids.net
Amendments Game
A scramble game that can be printed for classroom use. Amendments 11-27 are tested.

BrainPOP.com
Bill of Rights (video) (subscription and log-in required)
Tim and Moby teach students why the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution, why some states wouldn’t approve the Constitution immediately, and who wrote the amendments. The video also covers who deals with interpreting gray areas in the law and what kind of amendments have been passed beyond the original ten.

Women’s Suffrage (video)
Tim and Moby teach students about the struggle for women’s voting rights. It explains why women started pressing for the vote during the 19th century, and what people were doing in various countries around the world.

• ## The Standard System

FactMonster.com
Measurement
This site has all kinds of tables and information that is a good base to start teaching from. There are some games and activities too. Easy to navigate and full of good stuff.

ABCTeach
Math Chart: Metric Conversions (PDF)
This table features measurement conversions from U.S. to Metric, and Metric to U.S. Useful for classroom or individual study.

Convert-me.com
Conversion Tables
This website will help students with any conversions they need to make.

Math Is Fun
Measuring with Maggie: Introduction to US Standard Units
This site directs students through the basics of the standard system. Colorful and easy to navigate, this is a great place for younger students or as an introductory lesson.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

MCE
Measurement Chart
Though not an activity in itself, this colorful and information-packed chart gives teachers and students plenty of ideas for lessons or activities involving different kinds of measurements.

Customary Length
This quiz tests students’ knowledge to type of measurement and ability to estimate various kinds of measuring. Useful for many purposes.

Apples4theteacher.com
Measure the Teddy Bear
This cute measuring game is for the very young student. Fun and a good way to teach how to measure length if you need a group activity or lesson.

Discovery Education
A Metric World
This lesson plan teaches students how to convert metric measurements into the standard system, and challenges students to think about how measurements are used in our daily lives. A good activity that can be done as a class or in small groups.

##### Media

Sporcle.com
Measuring Game
This fun game tests students’ knowledge of both metric and standard systems. It is a timed quiz and great fun for a class, buddies or individuals to play. Good information, requiring some knowledge.

• ## Verb Tenses

The OWL at Purdue
Verb Tenses
This site reviews verb tenses in great detail, using examples to illustrate the key points. Easy to understand.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

BrainPOP Jr.
Tenses: Background Information and Activities
This site has several ideas for classroom activities about verb tenses. Login and subscription are required for the video, but good ideas for lessons are free.

Hot Chalk’s Lesson Plans Page
Verbs and Their Tenses
This lesson teaches students to identify and conjugate verbs. It works well in conjunction with another language class that is going over verb conjugation. Even though it indicates it is for grades 7-9, it can be used with younger students.

Lesson Tutor
Verb Tense and Conjugation
This site gives several examples of how to conjugate verbs into different tenses, and then has an activity for students to fill in verbs on their own. It is intended for grade 5, but because sources are limited on this topic, other grades can be added.

A4ESL. org
Verbs for ESL Learners
This site offers basic grammar and activities for students acquiring English. They have bilingual pages as well in many languages. Good basic material with crossword puzzles and visual games as well.
Grades 2-12 (depending on language proficiency)

Funbrain.com
toobee or nottobee
This site offers games and activities for younger students. Animation is clever and games are simple to understand. Deals well with verb tenses.

Eslbee.com
Partnergames
Though intended for non-native English speakers, this site would be good for many classes and grades. It suggests students be partners with one asking and the other answering questions using verb tenses. Has various levels of difficulty. A useful site using cooperative learning.

• ## Water Cycle

NASA Science
Water Cycle
Using several diagrams and text, this website describes the water cycle in full.

United States Geological Survey
The Water Cycle
Using a diagram and definitions, this website explains the water cycle in great detail. You can follow a drop of water through the entire cycle. Available in many languages including Spanish, Vietnamese, Chinese and others.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

ABCTeach
The Water Cycle
A worksheet that asks students to define the water cycle and then draw a diagram or picture of it. Very useful for students with limited English or reading comprehension.

The Water Cycle
This worksheet is a reading comprehension quiz about the water cycle. Can be used with the previous Water Cycle diagram/picture activity or as a separate activity for students who prefer writing to drawing.

American Water Works Association
What is the Water Cycle?
In addition to providing a detailed summary of the water cycle, this website also has a multiple choice game.

Can Teach
Measuring Rain with a Rain Catcher
This activity asks students to measure the rainfall at their home or school. They can then use this data to better understand the water cycle.

Earth Guide
Water Cycle Quiz
This website features a multi-choice quiz on the water cycle.

Models of the Water Cycle
This site features multiple activities, all geared at having students better understand the processes involved in the water cycle. Though the site says the activities are for Grades 6-8, younger students will benefit.

The University of Washington
The Water Cycle
This website features a diagram of the water cycle, plus several activities to help better understand the process. There is a Teacher’s Resource page as well.

##### Media

Dr. Art’s Guide to Planet Earth
The Water Cycle (animation)
This website presents three interactive Shockwave animations that illustrate the water cycle.

• ## Weight, Mass, Volume, Density

UCLA.edu
Weight, Density,Mass,Volume
Although this site is quite dense for a young student, the information is excellent and clearly expressed and great as a teacher source. The experiment and activity at the end is an excellent way to give a visual understanding of weight, density, matter and volume. Excellent site for the middle school science buff!

Densities of common substances
This site has a chart of densities of common substances as well as links to tables and charts of other data.

Edinformatics.com
Density, Weight, Mass
This site, the Math and Science Activity Center, has information and activities geared for the middle school student. Excellent and easy to navigate.

ABCTeach
Units of Measurement
This website has conversion charts for mass and volume, in addition to others.

Volume and Area
This website has diagrams of various shapes with the equations for finding their volumes. Excellent chart that should be in every classroom.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Discovery Education
Gravity Gets You Down
This classroom activity teaches students how gravity works in relation to mass, weight and density. Activities for both younger and older students

The Educator’s Reference Desk
Does Air Have Mass and Density?
Using a basketball, students conduct an experiment to determine if air has mass, and therefore, density. It will help them to better understand both concepts.

Middle School Dense
Density Demonstration: Coke vs. Diet Coke
By comparing the amount of sugar in Coke vs. Diet Coke, students gain a better understanding of what density is and how it can be measured. This is a fun and informative experiement.

Middle School Science
Making Cents Lab
Students get to practice recording the mass of pennies in this activity. Must have pennies from specific years to make this work.

Metric System and Matter
This crossword puzzle features terms about matter and the Metric System. Brief but useful.

Properties of Matter
This worksheet covers the main concepts of matter in an easy-to-study format.

Volume Lab
This lab teaches students how to measure the volume and regular and irregular objects.

Volume of Irregular Objects
This activity teaches students how to use water displacement to measure the volume of irregular objects.

Science Learning Network
Liquid Layers

Teach-nology.com
Deducing Density
This experiment will give students a more complete view of what density is and how to measure it.

Kinetic City
Gravity Launch
This site is a great one for science buffs. It is a great game to illustrate the force of gravity in space and outer space. A terrific game for older students.

##### Media

Eureka! Episode 25 (video)
This is cartoon explains that volume refers to the amount of space an object envelops and that density refers to the amount of mass that is compacted in a given volume. Good for elementary and lower middle school grades.

• ## What Does the Constitution Do?

bensguide.gpo.gov
The Constitution of the United States
Provides a comprehensive history of the Constitution and a detailed summary of the document’s main points. Contains games (both print and interactive), glossary, links to US Government sites, etc. Excellent resource!
Individual pages for K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12

archives.gov
The Constitution
Features complete transcript of the Constitution and links to resources which describe its formation. Section with bios on all the signers. Excellent site for extra credit work.

Congressforkids.net
The Constitution
Information about the writing of the Constitution its signers and all the Amendments, as well as the Great Compromise.
For younger students

USConstitution.net
US Constitution: Related: Not!
This site lists topics or ideas commonly believed to be addressed as part of the Constitution but in fact are not. Information about these topics tells where to find the topic or issue in other documents. Excellent for class discussion.

##### Lesson Plans & Activities

Constitutionfacts.com
Lots of facts, games, puzzles and interesting information.

Col-ed.org [Columbia Education Center]
The Constitution – Behind Closed Doors
Activity is a staging of the Constitutional Convention. Students are assigned a role and position to debate.

How a Bill Becomes a Law
Lesson plan suggests several activities for students to better understand the process through which bills become laws. Activity ideas include inviting a Congressman to class and examining newspapers to see what kinds of bills are currently being voted on.

How an Idea Becomes a Law
Poster-making activity that teaches students the 14-step process for an idea to become law. This activity emphasizes the process used in creating laws.

Human Bingo
A Constitution-themed bingo game for the 8th grade classroom. Involves interaction between students.

US Constitution and Amendments
Activities encourage students to view the Constitution as a living document, not just historical artifact. Included are examining newspapers to find ways that the Constitution is currently affecting us and assigning groups specific pieces of the Preamble to analyze. Excellent way to break down and understand the various powers and responsibilities inherent in the Constitution.

We the People
Activities suggest students compare our current world with how it would be without a government. Goal is to have students understand the importance of established rule.

Eduref.org [The Educator’s Reference Desk]
The Constitution: Our Plan for Government
Teacher-submitted lesson plans. Suggestions for helping students understand basic parts of government, from what the Constitution says to what each branch of government does. Also recommends students use relevant newspaper articles that apply.

US Constitution and Amendments
Lesson plan has the goal of teaching students about the Constitution’s constant presence in our lives through debate and a project with newspaper articles.